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Engineering and Technology

  • Article Electrical and Electronic Engineering Interdisciplinary Sciences

    Heart Rate Variability Indices May Change Accompanying Cognitive Skills Improvement in eSports Tasks

    Kazuki Hisatsune
    Toshihide Otsuki
    Goichi Hagiwara
    Hirohisa Isogai
    Toshitaka Yamakawa

    Electronic sports (eSports) is becoming an increasingly popular subject of research with progress in the video game industry. However, the relationship between eSports and cognitive skills and heart rate variability (HRV) indices is not fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed changes in HRV indices in 20 healthy adult men while playing eSports and evaluated improvement in their cognitive skills before and after playing eSports using the Stroop test. The subjects were divided into two groups: 10 subjects who were trained in eSports for at least 1 hour a day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks, and 10 subjects who were not trained. The results indicated that subjects in the training group tended to have improved cognitive skills. In addition, in the group that temporarily improved their cognitive skills by playing eSports, similar changes were observed in HRV indices during eSports play, suggesting a parasympathetic nervous system dominance. Thus, it is suggested that the observed HRV changes were accompanied by the temporary improvement in cognitive skills induced by eSports tasks.

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  • Article Electrical and Electronic Engineering Interdisciplinary Sciences

    Real-Time Physiological Monitoring for Management of Normobaric Hypoxic Training Toward Wearable System Implementation

    Kazuki Hisatsune
    Toshitaka Yamakawa

    As a method to prevent lifestyle diseases, normobaric hypoxic training has been attracting attention. However, its exercise load and safety in non-athletes remain unclear. In this study, 20 healthy university students underwent a 15-min exercise test in a normobaric hypoxic room set at two different oxygen concentrations (O2: 20% and 16%), and the exercise load and safety were evaluated. The test comprised walking within the upper and lower limits of the heart rate (HR) calculated via the Karvonen method. The results showed that in case of 16% O2, the same energy was consumed despite significantly lower walking speed and distance than those in case of 20% O2. Therefore, it is suggested that the Karvonen method is effective in setting the load for hypoxic training. In addition, real-time monitoring of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) could be used to evaluate the safety of hypoxic training. Based on these results, we have developed a wearable pulse oximeter that can measure both HR and SpO2 from the earlobe and a dedicated smartphone application for analysis. If these can be practically applied, hypoxic training can be conducted safely that will contribute to the prevention of lifestyle diseases and the consequent extension of healthy life expectancy.

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  • Secondary Publication Architecture Business & Management Economics Engineering in General Information Sciences Interdisciplinary Sciences

    Nature versus Artifacts Body: One-Leaf Hyperboloid Type, Pair-Map Microcosm and Nested Economics

    Masayuki Matsui

    Toward digital-era, there is more increasing the portion of artifacts on the earth, and is attainable to the global environment of nature versus artifacts bodies. At the paper, we first suppose One-leaf Hyperboloid and the typical cases:Social (or enterprise) and Physical bodies as the base of nature vs. artifacts bodies. Second, the traditional pair-map is here developed, is semi-finalized at a generalization including Nash’s zone, and its 3D-like body is visually embodied as the two illustrations. Third, for a fractal(nested) mother of pair-map and its Nash’s zone, the shared equilibrium problem of 3D-type is discussed on the Trickle-down effort vs. Modern money theory (up) at Mt. Fuji type in the economic society. Finally, it is remarked that the latter might be better than the former at income distribution.

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  • Article Education Environmental Sciences Psychology

    Effect of positive and negative ions in esports performance and arousal levels

    Goichi Hagiwara
    Takehiro Iwatsuki
    Hirokazu Funamori
    Masaru Matsumoto
    Yukihiro Kubo
    Seiji Takami
    Hiroaki Okano
    Daisuke Akiyama

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effects of arousal levels in esports players during a racing-game under positive and negative ion environments. Participants (10 male) who belonged to the collegiate esports team were recruited. The influences of positive and negative ions were evaluated in a randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled double-blind design. Each participant completed two experiments within a 4-week interval. Two experimental environments were used: positive and negative ions filled up the atmosphere (PNI), and a control (CON) condition. For the performance task, a car-racing game was adopted. Arousal state was measured by the Two-Dimensional Mood Scale (TDMS) and an electroencephalogram (EEG). Results indicated that the EEG level was significantly higher in PNI than CON condition. Also, the PNI had a significantly higher performance on the gaming task than the CON condition. The present study demonstrated the beneficial effects of positive and negative ion environments on esports players.

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