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  • Article Business & Management Economics Education Others Psychology

    The Effect of Auditory Stimulation on College Sports Team and University Identification of Media Spectators: Focusing on the Presence or Absence of Live Play-by-Play Announcements and Commentary

    Masaya Muneda
    Takahiro Kitamura
    Shinichi Kawamae
    Keisuke Matsuki

    This study aimed to determine how college sports team identifications and university identifications of college sports media viewers differ depending on the presence or absence of live play-by-play announcements and commentary. The participants in the experiment were 115 students from University A. A screening survey was conducted to confirm that these were essential attributes, resulting in 58 and 57 participants in the groups with commentary and without commentary, respectively. We conducted an Internet survey with these two groups of experimental participants before and after watching videos of the games. The results showed that only the group with commentary demonstrated improvements in the "public evaluation" of the college sports team and university identification (College sports team: F (1, 113) = 5.28, p < .05; University: F (1, 113) = 5.28, p < .05).

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  • Secondary Publication Business & Management Economics

    Nature Versus Artifact Body II:Sollen, Central Dualism, and Chameleon Criteria

    Masayuki Matsui

    Contrary to Wiener’s work, the subject of Sein and Sollen in “nature versus artifact bodies” was logically re-examined using a white-box (pair-matrix) approach and formalized on pair-map (microcosm) under closed-earth versus smart-world conditions. This body science and Sollen of 3M&I variety (pair-map) would be probably developed at the type of ternary SW, which resembles the Eastern danshari concept, and is likely due to the motion–energy dualism under Newton’s laws (analog type), or equivalently, the amount–value dualism under Matsui’s law and dualism (discrete type). For this body’s central dualism, a pair map (rotational phase) was characterized in 1983 based on the microcosm of cross-ellipse images in a matrix of input–output pairs. At the paper, this field theory is physically formulated, solving the pair matrix, ternary SW and its central dynamism in a body of input-output. The observed underlying condensed structure (time model), and the internalized (embedded) dynamism (fractal and wave motion equations), are numerically clarified based on the expansion of the corporate-producing entity pair maps in Matsui’s theory. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the center of the pair-map hyperplane corresponds to a black hole (manifesting in the form of a conical dip that warps spacetime), collapsing the artifact bodies. Finally, interesting issues and findings are reported regarding the central dualism, progressive physics and chameleon criteria (medium), and are related to pair-map.

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  • Article Education Psychology

    Creating a scale for measuring non-cognitive abilities developed through sports for elementary school students

    Keita Kawazu
    Shunsuke Sakata
    Daisuke Miyamoto
    Yudai Ichikawa
    Hirohisa Isogai

    The purpose of this study was to create a scale to measure non-cognitive skills that can be developed through sport. To begin, a draft of a non-cognitive ability measurement scale was developed based on previous research. A preliminary survey of 346 elementary school students (318 males and 28 females, mean age 8.90 ± 1.76 years) was conducted, and a preliminary scale was created using exploratory factor analysis. A subsequent main survey was conducted with 1171 elementary school students (1025 males and 146 females, mean age 8.77 ± 1.73). In the present study, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability testing using cronbach's alpha, and structural validity of the entire scale were examined using structural analysis of covariance. Furthermore, theoretical interpretations were also taken into account, and finally, a non-cognitive ability measurement scale that can be developed through sports for elementary school students was created, consisting of 50 items with 5 factors: "self-management," "problem-solving," "cooperativeness," "leadership," and "greetings/polite".

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  • Review Article Others

    A statistical examination into the structure of plays and its relationship to wins/losses in basketball games played by excellent players from the standpoint of STATS

    Ken Nagamine
    Osamu Aoyagi

    We reviewed and summarized the findings from some kinds of perspectives. This allowed us to realize that no consistent findings can be obtained in terms of what plays/factors contribute most to wins/losses and the sequence of plays leading to scoring, that discriminant analysis is commonly used in the studies, and that for structural analysis, no rotational technique was used. Based on these findings, we devised the following new proposals: 1) Researchers need to exert more effort to analyze various kinds of games in the future, 2) We can recommend logistic regression analysis, but not only discrimination analysis. 3) For structural analysis, to make the research findings useful, the rotation of axes or principal components should be actively utilized.

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  • Report Education Others Psychology

    Development of Japanese women professional soccer athletes’ second career training

    Takahiro Sato
    Emma V. Richardson
    Hirokazu Matsuo
    Yota Kishimoto
    Sae Hashimoto
    Kozue Ando
    Chie Kataoka

    The purpose of this study was to describe, explain, and recommend how women’s professional soccer players and clubs could prepare for second career transitions in a way that minimizes psychosocial crises upon retirement. The Japan Women’s Empowerment Professional Football League (called the WE league) was founded with a mission to contribute towards building a sustainable society through promoting female social participation and enhancing diversity and choice. This study suggested training strategies that could foster second career development in the WE league. These strategies are (a) including theoretical frameworks in second career pathways, (b) the necessity of dual education pathways for Japanese women’s professional athletes, (c) promoting virtual internship experiences for Japanese women’s professional athletes, and (d) recommendations of second career training workshops for professional athletes in the WE League. The WE League and teams should allow professional athletes to improve meaningful skills and knowledge development, multiple experiential learning opportunities, and applicable training on second career development. Due to the paucity of research in this area, it is essential for scholars to further explore potential education and internships opportunities to ease transitions to second careers upon retirement.

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  • Article Education Others

    Proposal of Rubric for Information Security Education Materials

    Daisuke Saito
    Shumon Masuda
    Hironori Washizaki
    Yoshiaki Fukazawa
    Toshiharu Nishizawa

    This study proposes a generic rubric that can be used as an assessment axis for information security educational materials regarding existing computer science education evaluation standards to assess the learning effectiveness of information security educational materials aimed at young people. The proposed rubric includes items such as “understanding of cyber security” and “understanding why passwords are necessary,” and five-level learning objectives are defined for these items. Furthermore, the proposed rubric was used to assess the existing information security educational material “Hajimete no Joho Security (Learning First Information Security in a Different World)” using Minecraft. The proposed rubric was mapped to the learning contents of the teaching material as an assessment method, and the learning effectiveness of the teaching material was measured using Minecraft with the cooperation of a community center project in Sayama City in Japan. Therefore, we were able to evaluate the learning effects using the proposed rubric.

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  • Technical Article Business & Management Economics

    Examination of experienced university student athletes of Olympic athletes in Japan

    Futa Yahiro
    Goichi Hagiwara

    This study aimed to clarify how many university student athletes were among the athletes who represented Japan at the London Olympics (2012), Rio de Janeiro Olympics (2016) and Tokyo Olympics (2021); their result; and the faculties they belonged to in their universities. Athletes registered at the above mentioned competitions who were current university students or who belonged to a university in the past (including dropouts) were included in the survey. The result of this study shows that academic clustering is becoming increasingly customary.

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  • Article Business & Management

    Organizational Ambidexterity and Firm Performance: Effect of Two Types of Exploitation on Japanese Video Game Industry

    Taiki Ito

    Recent organizational ambidexterity studies have discussed the importance of achieving a balance between Exploration and Exploitation. However, existing studies have not distinguished the detail of exploitation; this study categorizes exploitation as ‘Repetitive Exploitation’ and ‘Incremental Exploitation.’ Our study contributes to ambidexterity studies by analyzing the impact of a combination of both these types of exploitation and exploration on a firm’s performance. We used 647 observations from Japanese video game industries between 1997 and 2019 for panel data analysis. In line with existing studies, we proved that firm performance increases when a balance between exploration and exploitation is achieved. At the same time, we found that firms with a lower exploration performed better when the rate of incremental exploitation was high. The results of our study suggest that even when the firm's ambidexterity is imbalanced, different results can be expected when both types of exploitation are considered. The Study has implications for organizations to improve their performance.

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  • Article Psychology

    The effects of interactive fitness video games on stress and cognitive function

    Hisashi Mitsuishi
    Togo Ogi

    Exercise that stimulates perceptual and cognitive aspects and simultaneously enhances neuromuscular coordination has both cognitive and psychological effects. We examined the effects of an interactive fitness video game in 18 healthy participants (8 males and 10 females). The participants performed under 1) TETRIS, 2) Radio Gymnastics, or 3) FITRIS (interactive fitness video game) conditions on different days. In this experiment, first there was a 4-minute rest period during which the mean heart rate was measured, followed by a cognitive task. The heart rate was measured to confirm the intensity of the exercise. Then either the TETRIS, Radio Gymnastics, or FITRIS condition was initiated, while the mean heart rate was measured again. Then there was another cognitive task, followed by another 4 minute rest and mean heart rate measurement period. Saliva samples were collected after each period where the heart rate was measured. All of the participants completed evaluations of cognitive tasks (executive functions; inhibitory control and working memory) before and after each condition. The results showed that salivary cortisol decreased in all conditions, and both the FITRIS and Radio gymnastics conditions had a positive effect on executive function (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility). In particular, it was shown that FITRIS had an increased effect on cognitive flexibility.

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  • Article Education Others

    The relationship among skills/factors and their structure and wins/losses in games in basketball classes

    Ken Nagamine
    Osamu Aoyagi
    Akihito Yaita
    Ikuo Komure
    Tsuyoshi Kawazura
    Shinya Tagata
    Tomohiro Annoura
    Yasufumi Ohyama

    This study aimed to extract the structure of plays/fouls of basketball games in university PE classes using MDS and to investigate the relationship between wins/losses and their structure using logistic regression analysis in the games. Targeted games were 20 games performed in university PE classes at F-university and the plays/factors observed were assessed by a 5-point scale. The items observed were 52 items chosen from “Passing,” “Dribbling,” “Shooting,” “Rebounding,” “Fast break,” “Cooperative plays,” “Violations,” and “Fouls.” After the principal component analysis was applied to the whole data, the items that did not show significant loadings were removed from the analysis, and a correlation matrix among only the items that had significant principle loadings was computed. Another principal component analysis was performed and the principal component scores for each skill/factor were computed. Nonmetric MDS was applied to the correlation matrix, a two-dimensional space was extracted, and the rotation of axes by Varimax criterion and clustering by hierarchical cluster analysis were applied to the two-dimensional space. Finally, logistic regression analysis to predict wins/losses was carried out using skills/factors including gender and evaluators to remove their influence as independent variables. As a result, the following results were obtained: 1) The two-dimensional space obtained was interpreted as “Individual skills and skills leading to fouls/violations” and “Individual – group skills.” Again, the four clusters obtained were also named “Ball-advancing individual skills,” “Under-basket individual skills,” “Cooperative skills,” and “Against-rule and unskilled plays.” 2) Although the likelihood ratio test of logistic regression analysis with all independent variables was not significant, the test of the model after the independent-variable selection was significant, in which “Shooting,” “Cooperative plays,” “Fouls,” and “Gender” were included. In the univariate analysis using correlation ratios, “Dribbling,” “Shooting,” and “Cooperative plays” were significant, but “Fouls” were not. It is thought that “Dribbling” lost its significant relationship with wins/losses when removing the influence of “Cooperative plays,” and insignificant “Fouls” in the univariate analysis showed an important impact on wins/losses because the fouls provided the change of offense and the risk of a losing score increased.

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